In this article we are going to be going over the very fundamental concepts of programming. It doesn’t matter what programming language you use these concepts apply to every single language that has been made and even if a new language does emerge, it will use these concepts there are no doubts about it.

Line-By-Line Execution

Instructions that are written in a program are executed line by line.

Flow Control with Conditionals

There will be times when we want to do something only when a particular condition is met. Conditional statements helps us control the flow of execution.

Example: If completed eating then wash hands.


Doing something over and over. Sometimes for a fixed number of times or until a condition is met.

Example: Count till 10.

In the example what do you do precisely? You increment by 1 and stop when you reached 10.


These are blocks of code that can be called and executed anytime. Usually functions are designed to do very specific things. The advantage of having multiple functions that can each do a single thing very well over one huge function that does a multitude of things is that you can have multiple combinations of things you can do, the code is more readable and you can reuse these functions in other programs.

Example: Organs serve very specific functions in the bodies. The eyes helps to gather visual input and transmit it into our brain. The brain as the hardware equivalent of a processor that runs our software that is our consciousness The stomach for digestion, and so on and so forth.

I did not include OOP or Object Oriented Programming because although it is fundamental it’s not as fundamental or basic as these concepts. You can build almost anything with these principles alone. OOP is just another way to approach the same problem perhaps in a bit more efficient manner. This article will be updated to be more simple and concise so stay tuned as more programming and coding related stuff is coming up. Always remember the concepts are much more important than the language or the code when it comes to understanding and BTW only try to understand these concepts do not memorize them they are not meant to be memorized.

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